Kenneth R. Bowling
George Washington University, Department of History
Excerpts from my Interview with Professor Bowling:
The Excise tax was essential to pay for the cost of assuming the state debts, which is why Madison voted for it ... so it is definitely part of the compromise.
The votes were always there for the Potomac River and Philadelphia, except every time Pennsylvania and the South made a deal, New England, led by Massachusetts, went to Pennsylvania and said you're an idiot! Make a deal with us and you can have the permanent residence, after all you are the middle state. This time, what Hamilton did was tell the Massachusetts delegation that if they blocked the residence bill, they wouldn't get assumption and Massachusetts was heavily in debt. The Massachusetts delegation never agreed to vote for the residence bill. They didn't have to. There were enough votes without them.